UNDERSTANDING AND CLASSIFYING INFORMATION SYSTEM ALIGNMENT APPROACHES
Oscar Avila Virginie Goepp François Kiefer
Abstract: Today, companies are immersed in extremely competitive world-wide markets that change continuously. Thus, companies have to evolve introducing strategic and structural changes as a response to the external forces of the environment. This implies to consider the information system (IS) alignment from a global point of view integrating the classical “internal” strategic alignment with two other levels: the alignments with the environment and with uncertain evolutions. Approaches that support and operationalise IS alignment are numerous but remain fuzzy towards the fulfilled alignment level. Therefore, it is proposed to build an analysis framework, based on theoretical alignment concepts, in order to analyse them towards this feature. It is composed of four elements and corresponding attributes detailing each level of alignment. This framework is applied to nine current alignment approaches in order to get a structured picture of the research in the domain. The corresponding analysis emphasises possible new work perspectives.
Keywords: IS Alignment, Alignment Approach, Information System, Analysis Framework
THE EFFECT OF PERCEIVED ETHICAL PERFORMANCE OF SHOPPING WEBSITES ON CONSUMER TRUST
Ming-Hsien Yang Binshan Lin Natalyn Chandlrees Hung-Yi Chao
Abstract: Trust is a key factor to the success of electronic commerce (EC). Websites facilitate enterprises selling online but also generate many problems, especially ethical issues that make customers hard to trust the sites. This study aims at investigating the effect of shopping websites’ perceived ethical performance on consumer trust. Through an experimental study of the simulated shopping website, the result shows that consumers will trust the website if they feel the site keeps a good EC ethical performance such as practicing the privacy policies and stating it explicitly, describing products or services in an appropriate way. This finding suggests EC vendors have a better understanding of the relationship between website ethics and consumer trust. It may also encourage EC vendors to enhance their websites’ ethical performance so they could gain trust from customers.
Keywords: Consumer Perception, Electronic Commerce (EC), Online Shopping, Website, Ethical Performance, Trust
SOCIAL INFLUENCE ON KNOWLEDGE WORKER’S ADOPTION OF INNOVATIVE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Hee--Dong Yang Yun Ji Moon Chris Rowley
Abstract: User perceptions toward information technology (IT) are crucial to its successful implementation. The purpose of our study is to improve the understanding of the impact of social influences on different types of users’ perceptions and adoption of IT. To do this, the study refines and expands the operationalization of the social influence construct to include four components: subjective norm, image, visibility, and voluntariness. This is used to examine influences by type of user (knowledge worker versus university student) and IT (innovative versus mature). The key finding is that when knowledge workers consider adopting innovative IT they are sensitive to general perceptions of its usefulness. The results have implications for management enquiry and practice.
Keywords: IT, Users, Social Influence, Subjective Norm, Knowledge Workers
Anol Bhattacherjee Michael Harris
Abstract: This paper explores factors related to user adaptation of information technology (IT). We propose a predictive model of individual-level IT adaptation by integrating adaptation-specific constructs from the technology acceptance model and adaptive structuration theory. The hypothesized model is empirically validated using data collected from a study of MyYahoo web portal usage. Our findings suggest that (1) the key determinants of adaptation behavior are adaptation usefulness, ease of adaptation, and IT adaptability, (2) the outcome of adaptation is enhanced IT usage, and (3) the effect of IT adaptation on usage is moderated by users’ extent of work adaptation.
Keywords: Adaptation, IT Usage, Survey Research
Kie Zhang Han Li Jennifer L. Ziegelmayer
Abstract: For SMEs, responsiveness to change is a critical survival capability. Practitioners believe that IT infrastructure flexibility contributes to responsiveness, yet empirical evidence is sparse. The purpose of this research is to empirically test the relationship between IT infrastructure flexibility, as measured on four dimensions, and IT responsiveness in SMEs context. Two research questions are answered by this study: first, does IT infrastructure flexibility help achieve IT responsiveness, and second, does each IT flexibility dimension affect IT responsiveness directly or indirectly. According to the resource-based theory, we speculate that, of the four IT flexibility dimensions, connectivity, compatibility, modularity, and IT personnel competency, only the latter two have a direct impact on IT responsiveness. Industrial data was collected from 233 SMEs and analyzed using PLS. The results confirm the positive relationship between IT infrastructure flexibility and IT responsiveness. The findings also provide evidence that the impact of connectivity and compatibility on IT responsiveness is fully mediated by modularity and IT personnel competency, which in turn affect IT responsiveness directly. The academic and practical implications of such findings are discussed.
Keywords: IT Infrastructure Flexibility, IT Responsiveness, Small And Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Resource-Based Theory
Jeongil Choi Sujie Wang Juan Valenzuala Ayseli Usluata Lars Svensson Gilad Ravid Voraphan Raungpaka Matthew North Stefan Nillson Maha M. El-Shinnaway Caroline Collier Lixin Cui Juyun Cho Daniel T. Norris Bryan Marshall Peter W. Cardon Catherine Whelan
Abstract: This study presents results of a survey about social network website (SNW) usage that was administered to university students in China, Egypt, France, Israel, India, Korea, Macao, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, and the United States. The offline and online social ties of SNW users were examined by nationality, levels of individualism-collectivism (I-C), gender, SNW usage, age, and access location. Contrary to existing literature, we found no differences in the number of offline friends between individualist and collectivist nations. Similarly, there was not a difference in the number of online social ties between individualist and collectivist nations. However, members of collectivist nations had significantly more online social ties never met in person. Heavy SNW users in individualist nations maintained significantly higher numbers of offline social ties; however, heavy SNW users in collectivist nations did not have higher numbers of offline social ties. Related implications and recommendations are provided.
Keywords: Social Ties, Online Social Ties, Individualism, Collectivism, Social Networking Websites
Eugenia Y. Huang Sheng Lin
Abstract: This study investigates the e-mail usage behavior of knowledge workers through an in-depth literature review and a focus group discussion. It finds that people are ruled by e-mail, but think otherwise. In daily usage, many of the weaknesses of e-mail are converted into strengths, and having an information system background does not necessarily lead to sophistication in using e-mail tools. Further, users regard e-mail as a print medium rather than an interactive medium, and it has to a great extent replaced face-to-face communication in the workplace. E-mail users use the medium’s carbon copy and forwarding features habitually and not out of necessity, and they do not usually handle work-related and personal e-mail messages separately. Finally, users seek opportunities to learn about e-mail functionality out of convenience, but these are not attained with ease. A contrast between these findings and conventional wisdom is drawn.
Keywords: E-Mail Usage Behavior, Focus Group, Knowledge Worker
William Spangler Mordechai Gal-Or Jerrold H. May Kathleen S. Hartzel
Abstract: This research explores the characteristics and implementation challenges of a complex, distributed system that attaches data processing and storage capabilities to physical objects. In the context of systems based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, we present a model that defines the constituents of complexity in this type of system, and discuss how object-oriented techniques can mitigate the complexity. The model, extended from prior models of organizational change and systems development, defines system complexity across three dimensions: architecture, component, and infrastructure. The model explains how changes in the architectural and component knowledge of a system are engendered by the shift from a digital to a physical infrastructure, leading to what is termed a ‘radical’ change. We link the architectural and component characteristics of a physically distributed object-oriented (PDO) system to the design elements of an object-oriented system, and indicate how an object-oriented approach can mitigate the complexity of the physical system’s design and overall control structure.
Keywords: Organizational Change, Object-Oriented Design, Distributed Systems, RFID
Trevor T. Moores Alexander Nill Marcus A. Rothenberger
Abstract: We set out to answer the question: Can legislative and educational outreach programs reduce the level of software piracy? Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, we hypothesize that knowledge of software piracy promoted by these campaigns will lead to increased awareness of the legal consequences of engaging in software piracy and the likelihood of being punished. These two constructs, in turn, will impact on one’s attitude towards software piracy, and hence, on the level of one’s pirating behavior. We test the model using a sample of U.S. business students and find strong support for the model, with an understanding of the number of jobs lost due to software piracy being the dominant factor. This suggests that decision makers in the software industry need to refocus educational outreach programs from stressing the illegality of copyright infringement to emphasizing the social consequences of such behavior.
Keywords: Ethics, Knowledge, PLS, Software Piracy, Theory of Planned Behavior
Dawn G. Gregg
Abstract: This paper presents a study comparing existing reputation systems to determine if the different reputation system designs are equally capable of eliciting meaningful feedback from users and if the information from these systems is equally useful for evaluating whether or not to purchase from a given seller. A survey of online consumers and data from both the eBay and the Amazon reputation systems are used to determine the impact of reputation system design on overall system effectiveness. Results of this research indicate that the five-star response system used by Amazon may be more useful to users attempting to determine which sellers to buy from.
Keywords: Reputation System, E-Commerce, Consumer Behavior, Scale Design
Keng Siau Yuan Long
Abstract: E-government presents ways to utilize information and communication technologies to help governments facilitate their daily administration and to provide better services to citizens, businesses, and government agencies. This research investigates factors affecting e-government development. Based on the Growth Theory and Human Capital Theory from the economics literature, we hypothesize that Information and Computer Technology, and Human Development are two factors impacting e-government development. The hypotheses were empirically tested using secondary data from the United Nations and the United Nations Development Programme. The results support the two hypotheses. Further analysis was also carried out to compare countries with low, medium, and high human development levels.
Keywords: E-Government Development, Web Presence, Growth Theory, Human Capital Theory
Abstract: If technology provides features that are useful to an end user, then it will have a positive impact on their performance. Task-technology fit theory defines a model that has been used to explain information systems utilization. Goodhue and Thompson’s (1995) research describes the relationship between the task requirements of the user and the functionality of the system and their impact on utilization. Performance impacts will occur when the technology meets the users’ needs and provides features that support the fit of the requirements of the task.
Keywords: Task-Technology Fit, Qualitative Research, Quantitative Research
Stefan Bojnec Imre Fertö
Abstract: The article investigates the impact of the number of Internet users on the bilateral manufacturing export growth among OECD countries. We employ the gravity model using panel and cross-section regressions. The empirical results suggest that the Internet stimulates manufacturing export. The effect of the number of Internet users is found to be significant in the importing countries, and to a lesser extent in the exporting countries, suggesting that the number of Internet users improves information on the availability of manufacturing trade, reduces trade costs, enhances competition, and encourages manufacturing exports. The increase in the number of Internet users has also mitigated the effect of distance on manufacturing exports. The number of Internet users as a factor of manufacturing export growth provides support for a more intensive role of computer information systems in global manufacturing trade activities.
Keywords: Number Internet Users, Computer Information, Electronic Commerce, E-Business, Manufacturing Trade, Distance, OECD Countries
Chang-Tseh Hsieh Ching-Wen Wang Kai-Tang Fan Michael L. Menefee
Abstract: An abundance of previous theories and empirical studies have verified that leadership styles indeed can influence members’ creativity and effectiveness in both traditional team settings and in a virtual context. Moreover, past research has also indicated that leaders can build relationships among team members and increase mutual trust due to the face to face interaction made possible in a traditional office environment. However, there is little empirical work that articulates how leaders behave and motivate their members in a virtual context. This study employed an experimental design with 50 undergraduate juniors who acted as the team members and 23 Executive MBA students who acted as the team leaders. The main goal was to study the impact of leaders’ motivating language (i.e., empathetic, direction-giving, and mixed usage) on team members’ creative performance. Key findings indicate that there are slightly significant differences between three kinds of motivating language approaches. The study shows that leaders who give virtual team members feedback via written communication that is both directional and empathetic are perceived as more effective and lead to better performance.
Keywords: Virtual Teams, Motivating Language, Creativity, Idea Generation, Leadership
Gyeung-Min Kim Kihyun Kim Eun Sook Kil
Abstract: This study examines compatibility factors that influence users’ intention to adopt mobile entertainment service. Potential compatibility factors derived from previous research include (1) compatibility with past control experience, (2) compatibility with user’s curiosity and intrinsic interest, (3) compatibility with social norms, (4) compatibility with perceived critical mass, (5) compatibility with preferred lifestyle and (6) compatibility with economical value. From survey conducted in South Korea, curiosity & intrinsic interest, social norms, preferred lifestyle and economic value were found to have positive influence on the intention to adopt mobile entertainment service. The results imply that MES provider must select the most appropriate techniques and features to enhance the level of intrinsic interests among users. In addition, MES provider should concern about cultural orientation and life style of users during development of MES contents and interface as well as marketing of MES service.
Keywords: Compatibility, Mobile Entertainment Service Adoption, Control, Curiosity, Intrinsic Interest, Social Norms, Critical Mass, Lifestyle, Economical Value